On the other hand, Canada has long sold 99% or more of its total oil exports to the United States: it already did so before the two countries concluded a free trade agreement in 1988. In other words, NAFTA does not appear to have done much to open up the U.S. market to Canadian crude oil. It was already very open — Canadians were just producing more. Overall, Canada has become more dependent on trade with the United States and has relied on its southern neighbour for 75 per cent of its exports. Other high-income countries tend to be much more diverse and rarely rely on a single partner for more than 20%. U.S. presidents have long had cordial relations with Canadian prime ministers, but Trump has not hesitated to use this addiction as a means of pressure. As part of the USMCA talks, he threatened new tariffs on Canadian auto parts if Ottawa did not accept trade concessions.
Nevertheless, NAFTA was an ongoing objective in the broader free trade debate. President Donald J. Trump says it has undermined the United States. In December 2019, his government finalized an updated version of the pact with Canada and Mexico, now known as the US-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA). The USMCA won broad bipartisan support on Capitol Hill and went into effect on July 1, 2020. The immediate objective of NAFTA was to increase cross-border trade in North America, and in this regard it has undoubtedly been successful. Reducing or eliminating tariffs and removing certain non-tariff barriers, such as. B Mexican local content requirements, NAFTA has led to an increase in trade and investment. Most of the increase came from trade between the United States and Mexico, which totaled $US 481.5 billion in 2015, and trade between the United States and Canada, which amounted to $US 518.2 billion. Trade between Mexico and Canada, while by far the fastest growing channel between 1993 and 2015, was only $34.3 billion.
Economists David Auteur, David Dorn and Gordon Hanson weighed the impact of trade with China and Mexico on the United States. The Labour Market in this 2016 document [PDF] for the National Bureau of Economic Research. NAFTA shows the classic dilemma of free trade: diffuse benefits at concentrated costs. While the economy as a whole may have recovered slightly, some sectors and communities have experienced profound disruptions. A southeastern city loses hundreds of jobs when a textile factory closes, but hundreds of thousands of people find their clothes slightly cheaper.