In addition, Egypt has signed several bilateral agreements with Arab countries: Jordan (December 1999), Lebanon (March 1999), Libya (January 1991), Morocco (April 1999), Syria (December 1991) and Tunisia (March 1999). In addition, Egypt and China concluded a trade agreement in 1995. Egypt has also signed an economic agreement with Russia. In June 2001, Egypt signed an Association Agreement with the European Union (EU), which entered into force on 1 June 2004. The agreement provided for immediate duty-free access for Egyptian products to EU markets, while duty-free access for EU products was progressive over a twelve-year period. In 2010, Egypt and the EU concluded an agricultural annex to their free trade agreement and liberalized trade in more than 90% of agricultural products. Trade in processed agricultural products is included in a Protocol to the Main Agreement (Article 4(b) and Protocol A). In addition, trade in agricultural commodities is covered by three bilateral agreements negotiated separately between Iceland (Agricultural Agreement between Iceland and Egypt), Norway (Agricultural Agreement between Norway and Egypt) and Switzerland/Liechtenstein (Agricultural Agreement between Switzerland and Egypt), of the one part, and Egypt, of the other part. These agreements, which are part of the instruments for the creation of the free trade area (Article 4(d)), provide for tariff concessions. UNCTAD`s work programme on international investment agreements (IIAs) actively assists policy makers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders in reforming IIAs to make them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth.
International investment regimes operate at the bilateral, regional, interregional and multilateral levels. Policymakers, negotiators, civil society and other stakeholders need to be well informed about foreign direct investment, international investment agreements (IIAs) and their impact on sustainable development. Main objectives of UNCTAD`s IIA work programme • Reform of the international investment agreement (IIA) regime to improve its sustainable development dimension; • Comprehensive analysis of key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime • Development of a wide range of instruments to support the formulation of a more balanced international investment policy. . . .