Tariffs are a type of tax generally paid on imported goods. If goods are subject to quotas, this means that there are limits to the number of people who can be traded over a period of time. The British Parliament approved the draft agreement by adopting on 23 January 2020 the implementing laws (the 2020 Withdrawal Agreement Act) of the European Union (withdrawal agreement). Following the signing of the agreement, the UK Government adopted and tabled the UK`s ratification instrument on 29 January 2020.  The agreement was ratified by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020, after approval by the European Parliament on 29 January 2020. The UK`s withdrawal from the EU came into force on 31 January 2020 at 11 .m GMT, when the withdrawal agreement came into force in accordance with Article 185. The nature of the rules governing other aspects of UK-EU relations, such as trade, travel, security cooperation and cooperation in other policy areas, will depend on what was agreed during the transition period. Agreements from 1 January 2021 will also depend on the conclusion and ratification of an agreement between the UK and the EU by the end of 2020. This triggered Article 50 of the Treaty on the European Union, which defines the procedure for the withdrawal of an EU member state, thus opening a two-year countdown to withdrawal. The transition also means that the UK will continue to contribute to the EU budget. This title relates to the customs regimes of goods transferred from the United Kingdom`s customs territory to the CUSTOMS territory of the Union and vice versa (Article 47).
Processes that begin before the end of the transition period „are considered an intra-Union transfer with regard to import and export authorisation requirements under EU law.“ The agreement also deals with the cessation of temporary filing or customs procedures (Article 49). The agreement also provides for a transitional period, which will last until 31 December 2020 and can be extended by mutual agreement. During the transitional period, EU legislation will continue to apply to the UK (including participation in the European Economic Area, the internal market and the customs union) and the UK will continue to contribute to the EU budget, but the UK will not be represented in EU decision-making bodies. The transition period will give businesses time to adapt to the new situation and the new era, so that the British and European governments can negotiate a new trade agreement between the EU and the UK.   The EU-27 (with the exception of the United Kingdom) notes that sufficient progress has been made in Phase 1. This means that phase 2 of the negotiations can begin. In Phase 2, the EU and the UK continue to negotiate the withdrawal agreement. But they are also beginning to discuss a transition period and explore their future relationship. The agreement covers issues such as money, citizens` rights, border agreements and dispute resolution. It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU.